Understanding What Delta-8 THC Is

Discover what is Delta-8 THC, its effects, legal status, and safety concerns for those battling addiction.

James Ekbatani
June 10, 2024

Understanding Delta-8 THC

In the world of cannabinoids, Delta-8 THC is a recent entrant that's gaining attention. This section aims to give an introduction to Delta-8 THC and understand its chemical composition, equipping you with the knowledge needed to make informed decisions about its usage.

Introduction to Delta-8 THC

Delta-8 THC, or Δ-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol, is a psychoactive cannabinoid that is naturally occurring in the Cannabis plant. It co-occurs with its isomer, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC, Δ9-THC), in hemp, but in lower quantities.

This cannabinoid is known for producing a fuzzy, euphoric high that is similar to marijuana but milder. Some individuals use it in an attempt to alleviate symptoms of conditions such as stress, depression, or chronic pain. However, the research confirming its effectiveness for these purposes is still limited.

Delta-8 THC is typically synthesized from CBD, the non-intoxicating cannabinoid, due to its low natural concentration in hemp plants. The production process involves a ring closure reaction, which requires harsh reaction conditions. The basic equation for this process is "CBD + acid + time = delta-8 THC".

Chemical Composition of Delta-8 THC

Delta-8 THC is one of the 100+ cannabinoids found in the Cannabis sativa plants, although it's not present in significant levels. Concentrated amounts of delta-8 THC are typically manufactured from hemp-derived CBD, according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Though it is not as potent as its well-known cousin, Delta-9 THC, Delta-8 THC still packs a punch when it comes to potential intoxicating effects. This makes it vital for anyone considering its use to be aware of its chemical composition and the potential impacts, both good and bad, on the body [3].

Understanding the chemical composition of Delta-8 THC and how it is synthesized gives a clearer picture of what it is and its potential effects. It's also important to note that the legal status and regulations surrounding Delta-8 THC vary by state. Always make sure to check the legal status in your state before considering its use.

Production and Legal Status

Understanding the production and legal status of Delta-8 THC is crucial for those interested in its use as it directly impacts its accessibility, safety, and effects.

Synthesis of Delta-8 THC from CBD

Delta-8 THC is typically synthesized from CBD (Cannabidiol), a non-intoxicating cannabinoid, due to its low natural concentration in hemp plants. The conversion process involves a ring closure reaction that requires harsh conditions, with the basic equation being "CBD + acid + time = delta-8 THC".

The synthesis of Delta-8 THC often results in a product that is more potent than the naturally occurring Delta-8 THC in hemp plants. The process involves using CBD from hemp plants along with several chemicals, leading to concerns about the use of harmful chemicals in production or during the process as these products are not regulated by the FDA for safety or quality.

Furthermore, the reaction often yields a high percentage of Delta-8 THC, as well as small amounts of other cannabinoids and reaction by-products. Health effects of these impurities are still largely unknown, and not all of them have been identified.

Legal Status of Delta-8 THC in the US

The legal status of Delta-8 THC in the US is complex and varies by state. It is primarily derived from hemp and is thus technically legal under the 2018 Farm Bill, which legalized hemp and all hemp-derived products. However, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has issued a statement indicating that all synthetically derived tetrahydrocannabinols remain Schedule I controlled substances, which would include Delta-8 THC synthesized from CBD.

As of now, the DEA has not enforced this interpretation of the law, but the situation remains uncertain and could change at any time. Additionally, some states have specifically outlawed Delta-8 THC regardless of the federal law. Therefore, it is crucial for potential users to stay informed about the latest legal developments in their specific state.

Effects and Benefits

Understanding the effects and benefits of Delta-8 THC is crucial for those considering its use. As a cannabinoid found through hemp derived from the cannabis sativa plant, Delta-8 THC is known to produce both intoxicating effects and potential medical benefits.

Intoxicating Effects of Delta-8 THC

Delta-8 THC is a psychoactive substance that is known to be less potent but chemically similar to delta-9 THC. Its intoxicating effects may include relaxation and euphoria, making it a popular choice among some users. As reported by Forbes, it may provide many of the experiential benefits of delta-9 THC, with fewer adverse effects.

Despite being less potent than its well-known cousin, Delta-9 THC, Delta-8 THC still packs a punch when it comes to its potential intoxicating effects. However, it's important to note that the impact of Delta-8 THC can vary based on individual factors such as tolerance, dosage, and the method of consumption.

Potential Medical Benefits of Delta-8 THC

Aside from its intoxicating effects, Delta-8 THC is also associated with a number of potential medical benefits. According to Turning Point of Tampa, it has been known to provide pain relief and anti-inflammatory effects, making it a viable option for those suffering from chronic pain. It is known to produce a milder, more calming effect than Delta-9 THC.

Moreover, studies examining potential benefits, including Delta-8 THC's ability to curb nausea and vomiting, lower anxiety, stimulate the appetite, and provide analgesic and neuroprotective properties, are ongoing [4].

Some individuals use Delta-8 THC to alleviate symptoms of conditions such as stress, depression, or chronic pain. However, it's important to note that there is limited research confirming its effectiveness for these purposes.

In sum, while Delta-8 THC is known for its intoxicating effects and potential medical benefits, more research is needed to fully understand its impact and effectiveness. Individuals considering its use should consult with a healthcare professional to ensure it is a safe and appropriate option for them.

Safety Concerns and Adverse Effects

Understanding the potential safety concerns and adverse effects associated with Delta-8 THC consumption is crucial for individuals considering its use. Despite the potential benefits, there have been several reported adverse events and warnings from the FDA.

FDA Warnings and Adverse Events

The FDA has reported an increase in adverse events related to Delta-8 THC consumption. There were 104 reports between December 2020 and February 2022, which included symptoms such as hallucinations, vomiting, and loss of consciousness. Furthermore, national poison control centers received 2,362 exposure cases of Delta-8 THC products between January 1, 2021, and February 28, 2022.

The number of adverse events reported:

Time Period Number of Adverse Events
Dec 2020 - Feb 2022 104
Jan 2021 - Feb 2022 2,362

Risks Associated with Delta-8 THC Consumption

Delta-8 THC interacts with the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the body by binding to CB-1 receptors, which help regulate functions like mood, hunger, body temperature, pain sensation, and alertness. The chemical structure of Delta-8 is similar enough to endocannabinoids, allowing it to activate these receptors and produce a temporary high by affecting brain chemistry.

However, consuming more Delta-8 THC than the body wants or needs can cause short-term adverse effects, which tend to become more severe with increased consumption. Adverse effects may include dry mouth, red eyes, increased heart rate, and loss of coordination.

Knowledge and awareness of these risks are crucial for those considering using Delta-8 THC products. It is always recommended to start with low doses and increase gradually, while closely monitoring the body's reactions. Furthermore, it is important to ensure the legality of Delta-8 THC products in your state before purchasing or using them. Always consult with a healthcare professional for guidance on the safe and responsible use of Delta-8 THC.

State Regulations and Future Outlook

In this section, we will delve into the current state laws pertaining to Delta-8 THC, and discuss the uncertainties surrounding its future regulation.

State Laws on Delta-8 THC

The legal status of Delta-8 THC varies significantly across the United States. In 22 states and one district, Delta-8 THC is legal with limited regulation. Some of these states, such as Alabama, Florida, Kentucky, Maryland, and Wyoming, have laws in place to prevent underage individuals from purchasing Delta-8 THC.

On the other hand, Delta-8 THC is banned in 17 states and significantly restricted in seven others. For instance, Colorado has banned the "isomerization" process used to produce Delta-8 THC from CBD, and Idaho has banned anything containing THC, even CBD products with trace levels of Delta-9 THC. The majority of these restricted states require all THC levels to be under 0.3% by dry weight.

It is noteworthy that despite state laws banning Delta-8 THC, it is still openly sold in some areas. This is evident in places like Hawaii and Mississippi.

Only three states—California, Connecticut, and Tennessee—have substantial regulations on Delta-8 THC. In California and Connecticut, Delta-8 THC is treated as marijuana and sold as part of the adult-use industry. Tennessee, on the other hand, regulates Delta-8 THC as a "hemp-derived cannabinoid" with specific requirements for testing, labeling, marketing, and serving size limits.

Uncertainties Surrounding Delta-8 THC Regulation

The future of Delta-8 THC remains uncertain due to the patchwork of state laws currently in place. While the upcoming 2023 Farm Bill might offer some clarity, there's no guarantee that it will resolve the current regulatory uncertainties surrounding Delta-8 THC. Thus, individuals interested in the use of Delta-8 THC should stay informed about the evolving laws and regulations in their respective states.

Consumer Awareness and Usage

As the public becomes more informed about the various cannabinoids found in cannabis plants, products containing these compounds, especially Delta-8 THC, have seen a surge in popularity. However, due to the lack of regulation and research, these products also pose potential risks that consumers should be aware of.

Popularity and Availability of Delta-8 THC Products

Delta-8 THC products are widely available in various forms such as CBD gummies, chocolate, candies, cookies, tinctures, vaping cartridges, infused drinks, and even breakfast cereals [7]. These products are primarily produced in labs using cannabidiol (CBD) from hemp plants along with several chemicals, making it more potent than the naturally occurring Delta-8. Since these products are not regulated by the FDA for safety or quality, there are concerns about the use of harmful chemicals in their production.

Despite these concerns, the compound's ability to produce a fuzzy, euphoric high similar to marijuana but milder has made it a popular choice among certain individuals. Some people use it to alleviate symptoms of conditions such as stress, depression, or chronic pain, although there is limited research confirming its effectiveness for these purposes.

Recommendations for Safe Consumption

Delta-8 THC, similar to delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9 THC), the main psychoactive compound in marijuana, affects mood, thoughts, feelings, and behavior. While the high is less intense with Delta-8, it can still cause common side effects associated with THC, such as paranoia, anxiety, and drowsiness, albeit less potent than with Delta-9.

Given these effects, individuals should be cautious when consuming Delta-8 THC products. It's recommended to start with a small dosage to understand how the body reacts to it. If any adverse effects are observed, users should immediately discontinue use and seek medical attention.

Furthermore, individuals considering Delta-8 THC for therapeutic purposes should consult with a healthcare professional. This is especially important for those with underlying health conditions or those who are currently on medication.

Finally, consumers should educate themselves about the laws on Delta-8 THC in their state and be aware of the uncertainties surrounding its regulation. Despite its current availability, the future legal status of Delta-8 THC is uncertain, and changes in regulations may affect the legality of its use and possession.

References

[1]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%94-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol

[2]: https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/addiction/what-is-delta-8

[3]: https://www.tpoftampa.com/delta-8-vs-delta-9-thc-uses-effects-and-more/

[4]: https://www.forbes.com/health/cbd/what-is-delta-8-thc/

[5]: https://cen.acs.org/biological-chemistry/natural-products/Delta-8-THC-craze-concerns/99/i31

[6]: https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/5-things-know-about-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol-delta-8-thc

[7]: https://www.forbes.com/health/cbd/delta-8-vs-delta-9/

[8]: https://thecannabisindustry.org/member-blog-where-is-delta-8-thc-legal-and-where-is-it-banned-cbd-oracles-map-has-the-answers/